Acute Epididymo-orchitis - is empirical therapy for chlamydia trachomatis justified?
In sexually active males, the commonest organisms causing acute epididymo-orchitis are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonnorhoae. The peak incidence is seen during 20`s. The aim of our study was to prove that in majority of cases of acute epididymo-orchitis, the bacterial pathogens cannot be isolated. The reason being that the pathogen responsible in majority of cases is Chlamydia trachomitis which cannot be isolated by routine bacteriological techniques. We reviewed the cases of acute epididymo-orchitis and studied the percentage of patients in which bacterial pathogens were isolated. The clinical and microbiological data of patients from Aug. 2003 to Sep. 2005 was reviewed. The clinical diagnosis of acute epididymo-orchitis was confirmed by scrotal ultrasonography. Midstream urine sample were processed by using standard culture techniques. Patients were followed for a period of three months. There were total 97 patients, with median and interquartile range of 20 and 17-25 years respectively. At the time of presentation the median duration of symptoms was 4.5 days, while median hospital stay was 5 days. Scrotal pain was the main presenting symptom. Pyuria was noticed in 41 (43%) patients and in only 12 (14%) of these the bacterial pathogens were isolated. Main organisms being Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We have concluded that Chlamydia trachomatis can not be isolated by routine bacteriological techniques. Currently available diagnostic methods are cumbersome and expensive. Therefore there is a need to develop simpler techniques, which can be made available in moderately equipped laboratories; in order to facilitate the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Presently the patients in whom the causative organisms can not be isolated can safely be treated for Chlamydia trachomatis.
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