A Hospital-Acquired Infection: A Public Health Problem
Keywords:Hospital-Acquired Infection, Public Health Problem, Nosocomial Infection, Pakistan
Abstracthospital-acquired infection, also known as nosocomial infection or hospital associated-infection, is defined as any infection that develops within 48 hours after hospitalization. It may develop either from out-patient clinic, indoor hospital setting, nursing homes, diagnostic laboratories or any other clinical settings. It may also occur either in epidemic or endemic form but endemic hospital-acquired infections are most common. According to an estimation, more than 1.4 million patients get affected globally by hospital-associated infections both in developed and underdeveloped countries. At any times, the prevalence of nosocomial infections differs between 3.5 to 12% in developed countries. However, the prevalence of nosocomial infections in developing countries is 5.7% to 19.1% and the average prevalence is significantly higher in contrast to developed countries. In accordance with a recent multicenter study conducted in Europe, the prevalence of hospital-associated infection is 51% in intensive care unit patients and the cumulative incidence is 17 episodes per 1000 patient-days among high-risk adults in developed countries. Though, in developing countries, the prevalence of nosocomial infections in intensive care unit patients is significantly greater (88.9%) with 42.7 episodes per 1000 patient-days that are nearly three times greater in contrast to high-income countries.
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