Spectrum and Outcome of Intra-abdominal Tumors in children Under-five in a Pediatric Critical Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Center of Pakistan
Keywords:Abdominal Neoplasm, Child, pediatric intensive care, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Wilms tumor
AbstractObjective: To determine the spectrum and outcome of intra-abdominal tumors in children less than five years admitted in the critical care unit of a tertiary care center of Pakistan. Methodology: This retrospective study included children less than five years with malignant abdominal mass admitted in the pediatric critical care unit of the tertiary care center of Pakistan from July 2015 to June 2019. Undiagnosed patients or with relapsed or benign abdominal tumors managed in an outpatient or admitted in the critical care for post-operative care only were excluded from the study. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 21.0. Result: Total 55 patients were included with 69% boys and median age three years (IQR – 2 years). Abdominal distention was the commonest complain (100%). Only 42% children survived (n=23/55). High grade mature Bcell Non Hodgkin Lymphoma was the most common (45%) diagnosis. Advance Stage III/IV was seen in 94%. Combined multiple site metastasis was most common (45.4%). Sepsis (OR-5.30, 95% CI-1.24-22.65, p-0.024), inotropic use (OR-9.00, 95% CI-1.33-60.92, p-0.024) and malnutrition (OR-4.85, 95% CI-1.08-21.63, p-0.039) were identified as the most significant prognostic factors related to high mortality. Conclusion: B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma was the most common histopathological diagnosis, while sepsis was the commonest reason for admission in critical care unit. Majority presented with advanced stages (stage III/IV) with poor outcome(58% mortality). Sepsis, malnutrition and need of inotropes were found to be the independent risk factors contributing to this high mortality. We recommend for early recognition of abdominal distention as an important sign of cancer with prompt referral to pediatric oncology unit which would definitely decrease the upfront critical care requirement and improve survival.
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