Gross Morphology of Placenta in Preeclampsia
Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy peculiar disorder with an incidence of 5-7%. It leads to placental insufficiency that results in fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology however remains unclear. It develops during pregnancy and subsides after delivery, implicating the placenta as the
main culprit. As placenta is the mirror of maternal and foetal status, it reflects the changes due to maternal hypertension.
Objectives: This study intends to compare the changes in gross morphology of placenta in preeclampsia with those of normal placenta. Materials & Methods: 25 normal and 50 placentae from preeclamptic patients were obtained from Lady Aitchison hospital Lahore. The placentae were distributed into four group on basis of diastolic blood pressure ranging from 90-130 mm Hg. Weight, diameter, thickness & volume of placentae were measured. Pathological findings like infarction & calcification were also noted.
Results: The study showed that the diameter, weight and volume of placentae reduced significantly with a rise in blood pressure in all preeclamptic groups. The thickness of the placentae decreased significantly in severe preeclamptic group D (diastolic B.P 116-130 mm Hg) only. Infarction of placentae was present
in 16.6% cases in Group C (diastolic B.P 101-115) & 20% cases in Group D. calcification was present in 12.5% in Group C & 13.3% cases in Group D.
Conclusions: Preeclampsia significantly affects the placenta by reducing its weight, diameter, thickness and volume. Pathological changes appear in placenta with mounting diastolic blood pressure.
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