Protective Effects of Annona Squamosa on Cardiovascular Congenital Anomalies in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats
Objective: To evaluate the protective effects of aque-ous leave extract of Annona squamosa on cardio vas-cular congenital anomalies in diabetic albino rats.Methods: It was a randomized control study, conduc-ted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Heal-th Sciences Lahore Pakistan, from May 2007 to 08. 18 adult albino pregnant rats with initial weight of 200 – 250 gm were randomly selected and divided into three groups; Group A served as control, whereas diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (45 mg / kg) on 8th gestational day in groups B and C. The diabetes was confirmed by checking blood glucose level from tail vein of the rats. Group C was addition-ally treated with the aqueous extract of Annona squa-mosa leaf (350 mg / kg / day) from 10th to 20th day of pregnancy. Fetuses were obtained by sacrificing the animals on 20th gestational day. Fetuses were eutha-nized, decapitated and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin; thoracic cavity was opened, heart and great vessels were observed thoroughly under stereomicro-scope. Heart was removed and processed for histolo-gical examination; serial sections, 5 µm thick, were obtained, stained with H & E and examined with the light microscope. The design and protocol of the study was approved by the ethical committee of the institute.
Results: 18.2% fetuses from B group showed transpo-sition of great vessels and atrial septal defect. Mean thickness of interventricular septum, in group B was significantly increased (881.0 ± 117.4 µ) as compared to that in groups A (487.7 ± 141.0 µ) and C (558.8 ± 86.4 µ, p < 0.05) indicating marked septal hypertro-phy. Valvular defects were also observed in fetuses from group B. Such anomalies were not discernable in group C fetuses.
Conclusion: It is concluded that use of Annona squa-mosa leave extract alleviates diabetes induced cardiac malformations.
Key Words: Diabetes mellitus, Annona squamosa, cardiac anomalies.
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