Clinical Profile of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Children: a Hospital Based Study


  • Muhammad Rafique
  • Fouzia Ishaq
  • Muhammad Khalid Masood
  • Youssef Ali Mohamad Al-Qahtani
  • Walaa Ibrahim Ahmed Assiri
  • Manal Ahmed Ali Assiri
  • Muhammad Atif Qureshi
  • Shumaila Zia



Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Saudi Arabia, diabetic ketoacidosis, children, symptoms.



Objective:  To determine the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children under15 years of age. Cross sectional study conducted at Aseer Central Hospital Abha, South-western Saudi Arabia from June 2011 – May 2015.

Patients and Methods:  Study included 141 Saudi children, < 15 years old with newly diagnosed T1DM. The demographic and laboratory data were collected from file records. The patients were divided into younger (< 5 yr), middle (5 – 10 yr) and older (>10 – 15 yr) age groups. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16.

Results:  Age of 141 children at onset of T1DM (mean ± SD) was 6.5 ± 3.2 years and majority 62 (44%) belonged to middle age group. Older 43 (30.5%) age group had female predominance (2:1) (p < 0.0001). Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (39%), obesity (11%) and male predominance (2.6:1) were found in younger 36 (25.5%) age group (p < 0.0001). Family history (F/Hx) of T1DM 29 (20.6%) and HbA1c (10.36 ± 1.8%) successively increased with advancing age of patients. Main presenting symptoms like polyuria (96%), polydipsia (85%), weight loss (62%), nocturia (47%), polyphagia (28%) and DKA (22%),were significantly more frequent in children with F/Hx of T1DM (p < 0.0001). Duration of symptoms at first presentation was 17.3 ± 10.7 days and daily insulin requirement was found 0.82 ± 0.2 units/ Kg.

Conclusion:  Polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, noctu-ria and polyphagia were the main presenting symptoms and more frequent in middle age group children especially having F/Hx of T1DM. Under five years, obese and male children were found at higher risk for DKA development. Girls usually present late in adolescent age.



How to Cite

Rafique, M., Ishaq, F., Masood, M. K., Al-Qahtani, Y. A. M., Ahmed Assiri, W. I., Assiri, M. A. A., Qureshi, M. A., & Zia, S. (2016). Clinical Profile of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Children: a Hospital Based Study. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 22(4).




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