Mandibular fractures in different pediatric age groups and their current management modalities
Keywords:Mandibular Fractures. Developed Countries. Face. Fractures, Bone. Mouth. Population Groups. Trauma Centers. Mandibular Condyle. Fracture Fixation.
Background: A number of cases of growing age trauma within oro-facial region have been observed in Pakistan, unlike developed countries of world. Mandibular fractures occur in greater frequency than those of the middle third of the face in children, later being very small and plastic comparative to mandible. These fractures of mandible do not demonstrate different clinical features as compared to adults but there is relative difference in treatment management due to, different patterns and plasticity of the facial bones in children, developing tooth buds at different levels in the jaws, mixed dentition, shedding deciduous teeth and incomplete roots of anterior teeth. The causes and patterns of fracture in children older than 12 years resemble to those found in adults. Mandibular fractures are common in Pakistan and commonly related etiology is accidental fall. Method: 57 patients presented with mandibular fractures at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department of Punjab Dental Hospital and Children Complex Hospital, Lahore from September 2003 to September 2005. The age of the patients ranged from infancy to early teenage (6 month to 15 years). After confirming diagnosis, the children were divided into following four groups; Group "A" (Infants), Group "B" (Pre-school), Group "C" (School) and Group "D" (Teenage). All patients were treated with one of the following treatment modalities, depending upon the site of fracture and age group of the patients; Micro and miniplates, Eric arch bar splints, Acrylic splints, Ivy eyelet wires, Trans-osseous wiring and Conservative treatment. Results: Group "A" of only 3 patients was managed with open reduction and microplate rigid fixation. Six months follow up showed healing without any complications. Group `B` with 60% males, had mostly body fractures, was treated with acrylic splints and circummandibular wires. Two bilateral body fractures, with avulsed few teeth, were fixed with rigid fixation. Five patients of about age 3 with minimally displaced body fractures were man aged with Eric arch bar fixation alone. Two bilateral condylar bowing fractures were treated conservatively (no active treatment) with no TMJ complications during follow up. The mandibular trauma was noticed exceedingly high in group `C` with overall 50.87% and exclusively in males (90%). Acrylic splints were utilized to treat either condyle with body fractures or condyles alone. Two children had postoperative ipsilateral jaw deviation on opening, which was improved with reverse elastic exercises during follow up. Five patients of high condylar fractures with either no or minimum occlusal disturbance, were conservatively managed. Early mobilization was the prime concern in them to avoid late complications. 17.54 % patients were of group `D` with again high male (90%) ratio. Two horizontally unfavorable angle fractures were managed by trans-osseous wires. Five with minimum displacement were managed with miniplates rigid fixation. All others` with associated condylar fractures were treated with Eric arch bar splint with one plate at body and intermaxillary fixation for two weeks. Conclusion: The patterns and management modalities of pediatric mandibular fractures vary in different age groups. The pediatric fractures should be managed as early as possible to avoid complications. Majority of trauma results in school going and teenage groups with definite high male proportion. High condylar fractures should be treated with extra care, keeping in mind of post traumatic TMJ ankylosis. Acrylic splints showed ideal results in body and condylar fractures, whereas, microplates may be the treatment of choice in infants with no or few deciduous teeth. No serious complications were observed during 6 months follow up.
How to Cite
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments firstname.lastname@example.org