RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE OUTBREAK OF MEASLES IN LAHORE, PAKISTAN
In Pakistan, three consecutive epidemics of measles in 2012 - 13 affected many thousands of children.
Objectives: To determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak of measles in Lahore.
Methods: A population based case-control study with 1:1 case to control ratio was conducted in Lahore. Pur-posive Sampling was done.
Results: Out of 100 subjects 50 were cases and 50 were controls. Demographic characteristics were des-cribed. The risk estimation was done by Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression analysis was employed at significance of alpha 0.05. Among cases 89% children > 9 months of age, 57% males and 43% females came from highly populated areas with lack of vaccine availability (75%), mostly belonging to middle socioeconomic status (83%) and educated families (63%). Fifty five percent were vac-cinated against measles from hospital or dispensary and few from mobile teams. 79% had history of travel to epidemic areas and history of breast feeding was present in 66%. Coexisting illness along with measles was present in 30% and 28% had Vitamin - A defi-
Chairperson and Head, Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore - Pakistan
M.B.B.S Final Year Student
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
cient diet. Twenty four percent parents showed lack of confidence in immunization program. Nineteen per-cent measles patient's mothers were sick and treated during pregnancy. The lack of cold chain, lack of awa-reness of expanded program of immunization, and malnutrition were found statistically significant.
Conclusion: The lack of Expanded Program of Imm-unization, transmission from surroundings and coexis-ting illness were found significant in measles epi-demic.
Key words: Measles, risk factors, contagious, pre-ventable disease, immunization, transmission.
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