Study to Evaluate Hepatotoxic Characterizations Induced Through Ethanol in Albino Rats Mus Musculus
Objective: To determine structural and functional hepatic characterizations induced through the ethanol in albino rats mus musculus.
Study Design: This study was an experimental Ran-domized Control Trial (RCT).
Place and Duration: The study was conducted at the experimental research laboratory of Government Col-lege University Lahore with collaboration of College of Medicine Al-Kharj University and Obeid Speciali-zed Hospital,Riyadh,Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to December 2010.
Material and Methods: Hundred male albino rats of 6 - 8 weeks old, weighing 150 - 200 gm each were divided into two groups of fifty each. Group A served as control and was given normal rat diet; Group B was given ethanol at a dose of 0.6 ml (0.5 gm) / 100 gm / day for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for liver function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed under chloroform anaesthesia and its liver was remo-ved.
Results: The mean values of Serum alanin-amino-transferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in group A were 28.17 ± 7.13 and 28.33 ± 3.05 respectively; where as in group B, the mean values of these enzymes were 84.33 ± 10.89 and 80.33 ± 4.37 U/L respectively, Students "t test showed statistically significant increase in the mean values of ALT and GGT in group B as compared with those in group A, p value being < 0.05. Liver was normal in appearance in all animals. The mean weight and volume of the liver in group A were 10.90 ± 0.39 gm and 10.33 ±0.42 ml respectively; where as, in group B, these were 13.25 ± 0.50 gm and 13.23 ± 0.38 ml respectively. Students "t" test showed statistically significant difference (p value being < 0.05) for weight and volume of the liver of group B when compared with those in group A. Liver preparations for histological study were examined under the light microscope. Group A showed normal liver histology, the mean size of hepatocytes and their nuclei was 21.25 ± 0.38 and 7.52 ± 0.12 µm respec-tively. In - group B, the mean size of hepatocytes and their nuclei was 26.24 ± 0.54 and 7.53 ± 0.12 µm res-pectively; the hepatocytes contained large number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, pyknotic nuclei were also obser-ved and portal areas showed lymphocytes infiltration;. Students "t" test showed statistically significant differ-rence in the mean value of the size of hepatocytes; Chi-square test also showed statistically significant difference in the percentage of hepatocytes containing cytoplasmic vacuoles, pyknotic nuclei and percentage of portal areas showing lymphocytic infiltration in the of the liver of the animals in group B, when compared with those in group A (p value being< 0.05).
Conclusion: Ethanol is hepatotoxic in albino rats as evident from the functional disorder and structural changes in the live.
Key Words: Ethanol, hepatotoxicity Pyknotic nuclei, Hepatocytes.
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