Fear of Missing Out in University Students: A Psychometric Study

Fear of Missing Out in University Students: A Psychometric Study


  • Amna Saba Sabir
  • Ayesha Jabeen




Fear of missing out, university students, social anxiety, Mental health problems, Prevalence rate, Scale development, Psychometric properties, collectivistic culture, Pakistan.


Background: Fear of missing out is a subcategory of social anxiety and an upsurge issue which may lead university students to experience many detrimental effects on their well-being. Objective: To develop an indigenous scale with sound psychometric properties to measure fear of missing out by highlighting the culture-specific experiences of university students. Method: A mixed cross-sectional research design was used. This study was carried out from October 2020 to May 2021. Data was collected from different government and private universities in Lahore. Initially, 82 items were generated by conducting interviews with university students. After eliminating dubious items, a list of 57 items was generated. These items were given to a committee of experts for empirical validation. After that, a list of 48 items was finalized. Then these items were piloted on 14 university students. Finally, this scale along with the demographic form was administered to a sample of 400 university students (men=194, women=206) in the age range of 18 to 28 years (M=21, SD=2.15) using purposive sampling technique. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed four-factor structures of fear of missing out scale named, Low Self-Esteem, Lack of Contentment, Apprehensions, and Jealousy. In each subscale, no. of items ranges from 6 to 14 items. Results revealed the newly developed scale has a high internal consistency of a=.73, test-retest reliability r=.89, and good concurrent validity r= .34. Results also revealed that 14.0% of participants have mild, 37.3% have moderate, 32.0% have severe and 16.8% have a very severe level of fear of missing out. Conclusion: As a result of this study a 41-items self-reported measure of fear of missing out for university students, having sound psychometric properties was developed.



07/26/2023 — Updated on 12/11/2023


How to Cite

Sabir, A. S. ., & Jabeen, A. . (2023). Fear of Missing Out in University Students: A Psychometric Study. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 29(2), 91–97. https://doi.org/10.21649/akemu.v29i2.5432 (Original work published July 26, 2023)



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