Risk Factors for Post Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography(ERCP) Pancreatitis (PEP) and Efficacy of Octreotide in its Prevention
Keywords:ERCP, Octreotide, Pancreatitis, Risk factors
AbstractBackground: Pancreatitis is a potentially fatal complication of ERCP, seen in 5-15% procedures. Factors precipitating its risk and effective pharmacological intervention for its prevention need exploration to improve patient safety. Objective: To identify risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and to determine efficacy of intravenous octreotide in preventing PEP. Methodology: A quasi-experimental triple blind placebo-based study included patients undergoing ERCP and randomize them in two groups through simple random sampling. Group A to receive intravenous Octreotide 4μg/kg before attempting cannulation during ERCP and 1cc N/S as placebo for group B. Patients were followed for PEP and data were analyzed using chi square (x2) and logistic regression analysis. Results: Of 203 included patients, 101 (49.3%) received octreotide while 102 (50.7%) were in control group. Post ERCP pancreatitis developed in 32 (15.8%) patients, in 8 (7.9%) patients of octreotide group while in 24 (23.8%) patients of control group (p value 0.002 with odds ratio (OR) for octreotide of 0.33 (95% CI 0.15- 0.71). We identified biliary surgery (p value 0.005), serum bilirubin ≥ 3 mg/dl (p value 0.03), cannulation time > 5 minutes (p value <0.000), needle knife sphincterotomy (p value 0.002), deep pancreatic duct (PD) cannulation (p value <0.000) and procedure time>30 minutes (p value 0.002) as risk factors for PEP. Conclusion: Previous biliary surgery, high serum bilirubin, cannulation time > 5 minutes, use of needle knife, PD cannulation and procedure time > 30 minutes are associated with increased risk of PEP. Intravenous octreotide before cannulation reduces risk of post ERCP pancreatitis.
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