Behavioural Determinants for Hand Hygiene Practices among Primary School Children during COVID-19 Pandemic


  • Mydah Tariq Rana
  • Muhammad Faheem Afzal
  • Muhammad Haroon Hamid



Hand hygiene, COVID-19, Primary school children, Behavioural determinants, RANAS


Background: Children acquire SARS CoV-2 infection from their family members but they experience mild symptoms. Hand washing promotion programs are being executed in many countries to enhance child healthcare development. Objective: This study was designed to identify behavioural determinants to increase hand washing practices among primary school children during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted by the Department of Pediatrics, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital, Lahore from June to November 2020. Total of 195 mothers of primary school children were enrolled by non-probability consecutive sampling. A 23-item, 5 points likert scale questionnaire assessed 5 domains related to handhygiene. Data was entered in SPSS 24. Domains were presented as frequency tables. Independent sample t-test was applied to 8 mean score of sub-category of each domain, and to cumulative mean score of each domain. A cut off mean score of ≥3 was taken as satisfactory. Results: We found satisfactory mean scores amongst mothers for knowledge regarding the importance of hand-washing (3.59±0.62), and commitment regarding maintenance of hand-hygiene (3.44±0.773). Better mean score for liking hand washing with alcohol rub/sanitizer than with soap and water (3.14±1.063 versus 1.10±1.229) was seen. Children reported not feeling dirty if they did not practice hand-hygiene (2.99±1.195). Elders in the households promoted hand-washing, but lacked practicing it themselves (3.48±0.881 versus 2.85±1.242). There was below satisfactory mean score for hand-hygiene amongst children after sneezing, coughing, blowing their nose, or playing (2.50±1.253, 2.23±1.265, 2.27±1.301, 2.83±1.280 respectively). Norm and self-efficacy factors had adequate overall scores (3.17±0.84, 3.17±0.65). The total score for this study was 2.8759±0.419. Conclusion: We found satisfactory mean scores for risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation factors of handhygiene among primary school children.



How to Cite

Rana, M. T. ., Afzal, M. F. ., & Hamid, M. H. . (2022). Behavioural Determinants for Hand Hygiene Practices among Primary School Children during COVID-19 Pandemic. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 28(1), 103-108.




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