Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan


  • Moneeb Tariq
  • Kashif Iqbal
  • Munib-ur- Rehman
  • Waqas Zaheer



Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Hypertension, Diabetes, Obesity.


Purpose: To evaluate the frequency of Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) in the patients presenting to a teaching hospital in Pakistan, and to find the most common factors associated with high frequency of ARMD. Study Design: Descriptive Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Layton Rehmatullah Benevolent Trust Free Eye Hospital Township Lahore from 1st January 2019 to 30th June 2020. Methods: A total of 720 patients with ages more than 60 years were included. Participants with no media opacity were selected randomly from the outpatient department. After which Informed consent was taken from all participants for taking retinal images. 45 degree retinal images were taken using an Eight megapixel fundus camera (Topcon). Fundus fluorescein angiography and Optical coherence tomography (OCT) were conducted in patients clinically diagnosed with ARMD. A specifically designed proforma was used to document data like age & gender, smoking pattern, visual acuity for far and near vision, and staging of ARMD (if Present). Also recorded were Blood pressure, fasting blood sugar level, cholesterol levels, and height of patient. Results: The number of subjects participating in the study was 720, among which 350 (48.61%) were male while 370 (51.39%) were female. The prevalence of ARMD turned was found to be 5.27% (38/720) in the local population. The frequency of patients having signs of dry ARMD was 25 (65.7%), which were more than those having wet ARMD i.e., 13 (34.3%). Smoking was found to be most commonly associated with ARMD (36%). The second most common association was with hypertension (21%). While Hyperlipidaemia (11%), Diabetes Mellitus type II (10%), and obesity (6%) had a lesser association with ARMD. The prevalence of depression in patients of ARMD was 92.1%. Conclusion: ARMD is most frequent in smokers and they should be educated about this risk.


2022-01-27 — Updated on 2022-02-02


How to Cite

Tariq, M. ., Iqbal, K. ., Rehman, M.- ur-., & Zaheer, W. . (2022). Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 27(4), 551-556. (Original work published January 27, 2022)




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