Toxic Stress and Adverse Childhood Experiences

  • Ayesha Najib
  • Ali Akram Khan
  • Saira Afzal
Keywords: .


The human brain is indeed a complex entity. Millions of nerve cells and synapses encode behavior and responses in each individual that reflect as the personality of that particular being. The development of human brain starts from intrauterine life and continues into adulthood. The most critical period of development of brain is the early childhood. Any insult; physical or psychological, to brain during this period may prove to be very detrimental.

How to Cite
Najib, A., Khan, A. A., & Afzal, S. (2019). Toxic Stress and Adverse Childhood Experiences. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 25(1). Retrieved from
Guest Editorials

Most read articles by the same author(s)