Clinical Application of Grace Risk Score in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
Keywords:GRACE risk score (GRS), acute coronary events, acute ST-segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in- hospital mortality
Objectives: To determine clinical application of GRACE risk score in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Patients and Methods: It was an observational analytical study conducted in the Cardiology ward of Mayo hospital, Lahore from April to July 2015. Patients with Acute STEMI, NSTEMI or Unstable angina (UA) were selected on the basis of typical chest pain, ECG changes or cardiac biomarkers .For all eligible cases, at presentation GRS was calculated using online calculator. Also, GRACE risk categories and predicted in-hospital mortality were determined. Patients with previous episodes of STEMI/ NSTEMI, old Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), stable angina pectoris, acute pericarditis, myocarditis, acute rheumatic fever or pulmonary embolism were excluded. Data was analyzed on SPSS 20 and the R project for statistical computing. Individual components of GRS were compared among discharged and expired cases using t-test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: A total of 165 patients with STEMI and ACS were included. The mean GRS among males and
females was 137.4 ± 39 and 151.5 ± 50.6. The observed in-hospital mortality was 12.12% with 60% patients of STEMI. Among expired cases, 90% patients had high GRS, predominantly from STEMI group. Important determinants of adverse outcome were advanced age, tachycardia, low systolic blood pressure and presence of cardiac failure.
Conclusion: STEMI was the major acute cardiac event. The mean GRS of expired patients was significantly higher than discharged group. GRS accurately identified low risk cases with low probability of in-hospital death. GRS over estimate probability of in-hospital death among STEMI high risk cases that had higher scores and discharged uneventfully. Grace Risk Score is a reliable predictor of risk category and adverse outcomes and its use by clinicians should be strongly recommended.
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