Frequency of Anemia and Obstetric Outcome in Young Primigravida
AbstractPregnancy and childbirth is an event celebrated worldwide. During pregnancy physiological changes and increasing demand causes fall in hemoglobin level leading to anemia and adverse pregnancy outcome especially in young girls. Anemia is a major public health problem. Around 58.27 million women worldwide are anemic during pregnancy 95% of whom live in countries that are developing. To know the frequency of anemia, and obstetric outcome in terms of preterm delivery, low birth weight and rate of caesarean section in young Primigravida. It was a cross sectional study, conducted in the department of Gynae & Obstetric unit 5 King Edward Medical University Lahore during a period of one year from May2013 April 2014. All primigravida young 15-24years with anemia enrolled for the study. Anemia is defined as hemoglobin< 10.5g/dl (WHO Criteria), Iron deficiency Anemia is defined as serum ferritin level less than 12 micro gram per ml and on Red Blood Cell indices, i.e. decrease in MCV, MCH and MCHC, and Microcytic Hypochromic cells in Peripheral Smear. Megaloblastic anemia was labeled when Macrocytic Hypochromic cells seen. Obstetric outcome in terms of Preterm delivery defined as delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (36 +6 weeks) and birth weight <2500g mand a need for operative delivery. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria as per operational definition were included in the study after taking informed consent using non probability consecutive sampling technique. Data was collected on a pre-designed questionnaire. A total of 3855 deliveries during study period in which 1318 were primigravida. Mean age in study group was 15 to 24 years. We observed mild anemia in 46% of woman, moderate anemia in 41% and severe anemia in 13% in young primigravida. Preterm delivery was noted in 25% of the females and low birth weight babies were noted by 33% in teenage and young primigravida. Statistically significant relationship was found between maternal age, education and socio economic status. Anemia in pregnancy nowadays is still a common problem in adolescent and young primigravida and associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Prompt measure should be taken by the stake holders at local and national level to prevent and treat this problem in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it.
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