First Experience of Implementation of Kangaroo Mother Care in Punjab- Pakistan to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality in Preterm Infants
AbstractThe study was planned to assess the effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on preterm and stable neonates in reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality. This is a case series design of 121preterm and low birth weight neonates, weighing less than 2500 gram, enrolled from 1 August 2016 till31 January 2017.Kangaroo Mother Care is initiated after birth, after performing early essential newborn care practices. Weight gain of 20-30 gram for three consecutive days, establishment of breast-feeding for 20-30 minutes every two hourly and maintenance of body temperature at 37 degree centigrade is the discharge criteria. During the periodof six months, total number of deliveries was 6459, out of them spontaneous vaginal deliveries were 52.2% (3372) and caesarean sections were 47.7% (3087). In 55.4%neonate’s(both preterm and term)early essential newborn care was practiced.Total preterm were 290 (4.5%), out of them 121 (2%) neonates were kept inKangaroo Mother Care position and 129 (44%) were shifted to neonatal intensive care unit. 14% parents refused for KMC position and discharged. Mortality in preterm newborn in neonatal unit was 29.4% (without KMC) but no mortality occurred after 3 months follow up in KMC babies. All the neonates from KMC unitwere discharged in satisfactory condition and called for follow up investigations. All Kangaroo Mother Care babies had exclusive breast-feeding. Taken together, the results indicate that prolonged skin-to-skin contact and exclusive breast feeding reduces neonatal mortality and morbidity in birth weight 1.5 to 2.5 kg in stable neonates in hospital. However KMC is limited to SHL at present. Workshops are being conducted to teach other doctors and nurses for early essential newborn care and kangaroo mother care. They are still facing controversies and challenges in initiation of KMC in many hospitals. However it is essential to strengthen KMC services in healthcare facilities as it significantly reduces neonatal mortality.
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