Determinants of Smoking in Females


  • Saira Afzal
  • Fariha Salman
  • Saima Ashraf
  • Rukhsar Naseer
  • Sana Mukhtar
  • Moaz Bin Zia
  • Humayun Israr
  • Muhammad Zubair
  • Muhammad Waseem
  • Neehal Wali




Smoking is the inhalation of smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarette, pipes and cigars. A smoker is a person who has smoked at-least 100 cigarettes and now smokes either every day or some day. Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation by a nonsmoker of a combination of diluted mainstream and mid - stre-am smoke .Usually it occurs in a closed environment but it can also be a threat in an open environment. The increasing trend of smoking in the community is a ser-ious problem.

Objective:  To describe various factors associated with smoking in females.

Study Design:  Cross sectional study.Place and Duration:  Lahore. From April 2012 to September 2012.

Materials and Methods:  A cross sectional survey was conducted. Total 80 persons were recruited in the study. Selection was made on laid down criteria from only female adult population living in Lahore after taking due consent. Interviews were conducted thro-ugh a pretested questionnaire. Data was collected, compiled and analyzed through SPSS version 16.

Results:  Overall 17.5% were active smokers and 82.5% were passive smokers. Smokers were mostly young, mean age was 21.91 with standard deviation 2.279. Among them 82.5% had nuclear family struc-ture and 17.5% had a joint family structure. All partici- pants (100%) reported that their parents lived together with no conflict among them, 11.3% reported friendly attitude of parents towards them while 88.8% had str-ict parents. 88.8% participants had parents who smoke while 27.5% had siblings who smoked. Peer pressure was found in 6.3% cases. 15% participants reported to have stress, 42.5% were suffering from depression, whereas 31.3% from anxiety.

Conclusion:  The determinants of smoking in female were observed as young age, nuclear family structure, parent strictness and parental smoking.

Key words:  Determinants, females, smoking, psycho-social.


How to Cite

Afzal, S., Salman, F., Ashraf, S., Naseer, R., Mukhtar, S., Zia, M. B., Israr, H., Zubair, M., Waseem, M., & Wali, N. (1). Determinants of Smoking in Females. Annals of King Edward Medical University, 19(2), 133.




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