Hypertension and Pre-Hypertension with Associated Risk Factors Among MBBS Students of Shalamar Medical and Dental College, Lahore

  • Rana Hanan
  • Muhammad Waqar Shafi
  • Sumair Anwar
  • Numrah Nawaz
Keywords: Pre-hypertensive, Hypertensive, Medical students, Risk factors, Obesity


Hypertension is a multifactorial chronic disease and a silent cause of high causalities around the globe. Both hyper and pre-hypertension affect all ages and professions, and are as common as flu infections by affecting 1 in every 5 persons. In order to determine frequency of hypertension and pre-hypertensionamong medical students and their association with various variable and fixed risk factors, this study was designed. The cross sectional study of 4 months was carried out on the students of Shalamar Medical and Dental College. Students were aged from 18-25 years and a sample of 100 students was enrolled by stratified random sampling after written consent. We recorded blood pressure at three different time points, one minute apart in sitting position after ten minutes of rest. The average of three measurements was considered as final reading. Data regarding related variables was entered and analysed using SPSS version 21. Out of 100 (43 males and 57 females), three students were hypertensive, 55 pre-hypertensive and 42 normotensive; among pre-hypertensive female students were more in number as compared to male students. Mean age was 21.6 years with increased frequency of pre hypertensive and hypertensive individuals in the first, second and final year class. A total of 64% pre-obese subjects were pre-hypertensive or hypertensive and 75% obese were also pre hypertensive or hypertensive. Frequency of intake of fast/junk food was higher among pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individual than normotensive and same among both genders. Median value of average sleep (hours) among pre-hypertensive subjects was lesser than of hypertensive subjects. Students expressed their concerns related to college timings and hectic routine and increased frequency of teaching sessions including assessments. Frequency of pre-hypertension was higher in the students especially in the first, second and final years of graduation (MBBS). Pre-hypertensive and hypertensive students were pre-obese or obese and had positive family history of hypertension, consumed fast/junk food in both genders. College timing and intensive routines were primary cause of irritation and aggression, which may result in hypertension.