Effects of Exposure to Pesticides on Blood Serum Components and Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in Pesticide Vendors of Punjab Province, Pakistan

Muhammad Shahzad, Atif Yaqub, Mehmood Shaukat, Muhammad Kashif Fida, Nazish Mazhar Ali, Tanveer Hussain, Muhammad Sheeraz, Nuzhat Fatima


Objectives:  The present study is to see the effects of human exposure to selected pesticides on their liver and kidney function as well as variations in butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were studied.

Patients and Methods:  The study group consisted of 88 participants selected through purposive sampling technique and participated voluntarily. Sixty one pesticides vendors (male; mean age: 33.82 ± 11.5 years) and a control group consisting of 27 healthy male (mean age: 31.04 ± 11.96 years).

Results:  Mean levels of total proteins (TP, g/dl), albumin (g/dl) and BChE (u/l) were significantly lower in pesticide exposed individuals than those of control group [6.96 ± 1.45 vs. 8.75 ± 1.05 (total protein); 3.47 ± 0.76 vs. 4.37 ± 0.23 (albumin); 4213.20 ± 1128.96 vs. 5955.90 ± 623.16 (BChE, u/l), P < 0.001]. Among the pesticide vendors, urea (P < 0.01) and ALT (alanine amino transferase) (P < 0.05) concentrations were increased and BChE (P = 0.001) level decreased significantly in smokers than in non-smokers. Pesticide vendors having longer exposure time to pesticides had significantly higher levels of urea (P < 0.05) and ALT (P < 0.01) but had lower levels oftotal proteins (P < 0.01) and BChE (P = 0.001). Vendors who were not using proper protective measures showed significant increase in ALT (P < 0.01) level and decrease in total proteins (P < 0.05) and BChE (P = 0.001).

Conclusion:  The results of this study suggest that human exposure to pesticides has adverse effects on total proteins, albumin, urea, ALT, and BChE; these biomarkers were useful in studying adverse effects of pesticides in humans.


Pesticides, environmental toxicology, public health, buytrylcholinesterase activity, LFT, RFT.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21649/akemu.v22i4.1460


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