Chemical Biomarker Study of Negative Physiological Effects of Insecticides on Pakistani Farm Workers Health in the Central Punjab

Muhammad Shahzad, Atif Yaqub, Mehmood Shaukat, Muhammad Kashif Fida, Nazish Mazhar Ali, Tanveer Hussain, Muhammad Sheeraz

Abstract


Abstract

Background:  In recent decades, use of pesticides in agricultural practices has posed threat to human popu-lation.

Objectives:  Present research was designed to explore the adverse effects of insecticides on 339 individuals (study group farmers n = 256 and control n = 83) selected from 62 different sites of central Punjab. The sample was matched on socio-economic status and age.

Methodology:  A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the demographics and pesticide related details. For biochemical analysis blood samples were collected from both groups.

Results:Biochemical analysis shows that, farmers exposed with pesticidehave significant elevated levels of Urea (p = 0.05) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (p= 0.01) as compared with control. On contrary, low levels of BChE, albumin and total protein (TP) levels (p = 0.001; p = 0.05 and p = 0.001 respectively) were found in pesticide exposed subjects than controls. Also, significant increase in serum creatinine (p = 0.01), aspartate transaminase (AST) (p = 0.01) and notable decrease in the albumin, TP and BChE (p = 0.001) were evident in farmers with poor protective measures. However the statistical difference is not correlated with clinical difference.

Conclusions:  Several biomarkers have shown the possible hazards of pesticides to farmer’s health than controls. It was further explored that health indicators also associated with other factors like duration of ex-posure to pesticides, tobacco smoking and poor hand-ling practices amongst the studied population.

 


Keywords


Key words: Pesticides, Biomarkers, Environmental toxicology, Public health, Butyrylcholinesterase (BC-hE) activity, LFT, RFT, practices.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21649/akemu.v22i3.1396

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(C) Annals of KEMU, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.